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Congressional Pugilists, 1798. Etching on wove paper. New-York Historical Society Library, PR 10.

Resource 2: Political Battles

This 1796 political cartoon satirizes a caning episode between Federalist and Republican congressional opponents during the Adams administration, as elected officials stood by, grinning foolishly. In the young government, a man’s honor—his character and reputation—were the main qualifications for office, leading to aggressive, personal responses to political disagreements.

Creative: Tronvig Group